The evolution of many complex systems, including the World Wide Web, business, and citation networks, is encoded in the dynamic web describing the interactions between the system's constituents. Despite their irreversible and nonequilibrium nature these networks follow Bose statistics and can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. Addressing the dynamical properties of these nonequilibrium systems within the framework of equilibrium quantum gases predicts that the "first-mover-advantage," "fit-get-rich," and "winner-takes-all" phenomena observed in competitive systems are thermodynamically distinct phases of the underlying evolving networks.
complex networks, World Wide Web
The American Physical Society
©2001 The American Physical Society
Bianconi, Ginestra and Barabási, Albert-László, "Bose-Einstein condensation in complex networks" (2001). Physics Faculty Publications. Paper 123. http://hdl.handle.net/2047/d20000696
Click button above to open, or right-click to save.