Hameed Metghalchi, Yaman Yener
Date of Award
Master of Science
Department or Academic Unit
College of Engineering. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering.
engineering, mechanical, dental implant, finite element, stress analysis
Endosseous dental implants--Design and construction, Materials--Dynamic testing, Materials--Fatigue
Endosseous dental implants are used as prosthetic treatment alternatives for treating partial edentulism. Excellent long term results and high success rates have been achieved using dental implants during the past decades. Further improvements in implant protocols will include immediate loading, patient specific implants, applications for patients with extreme bone loss and extreme biting habits such as bruxism. Load transfer from a dental implant to the surrounding bone is believed to be one of the key factors that determine the health of the bone, and thus contributes to the successful survival of the implant system. Load transfer starts along the bone-implant interface, and is affected by the loading type, material properties of the implant and prosthesis, implant geometry, surface structure, quality and quantity of the surrounding bone, and nature of the bone-implant interface.
In the literature, finite element analysis has been used widely to investigate the stress distribution in the bone in the presence of a dental implant. However, a clear statement of how the load is transferred at the bone implant interface seems to be lacking; the effects of implant body-length, implant diameter, implant collar and apex shape, and the effects of presence or lack of screws on the implant body have been studied anecdotally, but not systematically. In this work we tackle the analysis of the fundamental load transfer mechanisms between the implant and the surrounding bone, and analyze the effects of the aforementioned variables along the bone-implant interface, systematically. Finite Element Method was used to model the bone and dental implant systems. We monitor the stresses along the bone implant interface, as well as in the bone and draw conclusions on the effects of implant design parameters on stresses generated in the bone, and on the bone-implant interface.
A 2D plain strain analysis of the buccal-lingual cross-section is useful in discussing the load-transfer from the implant to the bone. Among the six contour parameters, the slope and length of the implant collar, and the implant diameter influence the interfacial stress levels the most, and the effects of changing these parameters are only significantly noticed in the cortical bone (alveolar ridge) area. Moreover, Use of implants with external screws reduce the stresses in the bone distal to the implant, where as bone proximal to the implant (along the bone implant interface), is predicted to sustain larger stress values.
Faegh, Samira, "Mechanism of load transfer along the bone-dental implant interface" (2009). Mechanical Engineering Master's Theses. Paper 18. http://hdl.handle.net/2047/d20000013
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