In this paper, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to solve the disassembly-to-order (DTO) problem. DTO is a system where a variety of returned products are disassembled to fulfill the demand for specified numbers of components and materials. The main objective is to determine the optimal number of take-back EOL (end-of-life) products for the DTO system which satisfy the desirable criteria of the system. We implement the Weighted Fuzzy Goal Programming (WFGP) to calculate the fitness values in GA process. We also consider product deterioration which affects the yield rates (e.g., older products tend to have lower yield rates for usable components) and use heuristic procedure to transform the stochastic disassembly yields into their deterministic equivalents. A numerical example is also considered.


Originally published in the Proceedings of the SPIE International Conference on Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing VI, Boston, Massachusetts, pp. 54-56, October 1-3, 2006


Genetic Algorithm (GA), end-of-life (EOL) products, disassembly-to-order (DTO), Weighted Fuzzy Goal, Programming (WFGP)

Subject Categories

Recycling (Waste (etc.))





Publication Date


Rights Information

Copyright 2006, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers


This paper was published in Proceedings of SPIE (Volume 6385) and is made available as an electronic reprint with permission of SPIE. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.

Rights Holder

Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Click button above to open, or right-click to save.

Included in

Engineering Commons