In this study, the interfacial and electrokinetic phenomena of mixtures of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and deionized (DI) water in relation to semiconductor wafer drying is investigated. The dielectric constant of an IPA solution linearly decreased from 78 to 18 with the addition of IPA to DI water. The viscosity of IPA solutions increased as the volume percentage of IPA in DI water increased. The zeta potentials of silica particles and silicon wafers were also measured in IPA solutions. The zeta potential approached neutral values as the volume ratio of IPA in DI water increased. A surface tension decrease from 72 to 23 dynes/cm was measured when the IPA concentration increased to 30 vol %. The surface excess of IPA at the air–liquid interface reached a maximum at around 20 vol % IPA. The adhesion forces of silica particles on silicon wafers were measured using atomic force microscopy in IPA solutions. The adhesion force increased as the volume percent of IPA in water increased. Lower particulate contamination was observed when the wafers were immersed and withdrawn from solutions containing less than 25 vol % IPA.


Originally published in Journal of the Electrochemical Society, v.153, no.9, pp. G811-G814 (2006). doi:10.1149/1.2214532


silicon, surface cleaning, silicon compounds, organic compounds, water, elemental semiconductors, insulating materials, solutions, liquid mixtures, electrokinetic effects, drying, permittivity, viscosity, surface tension, chemical analysis, adhesion, atomic force microscopy

Subject Categories

Semiconductor wafers


Electronic Devices and Semiconductor Manufacturing | Nanoscience and Nanotechnology


The Electrochemical Society

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Copyright 2006. All rights reserved. Except as provided under U.S. copyright law, this work may not be reproduced, resold, distributed, or modified without the express permission of The Electrochemical Society (ECS). The archival version of this work was published in Journal of the Electrochemical Society, v.153, no.9, pp. G811-G814 (2006).

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The Electrochemical Society, Inc.

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