Second-order token and tandem
Jason C. Bourret
William H. Ahearn, Chata Dickson
Date of Award
Master of Applied Behavior Analysis
Department or Academic Unit
Bouvé College of Health Sciences. Department of Counseling and Applied Educational Psychology.
psychology, behavioral, autism, pre-ratio pauses, second-order token schedules, tandem schedules, token economies
Token economy (Psychology), Autistic people
Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Token economies have potential application for use in the facilitation and maintenance of behavior change, yet have not been demonstrated experimentally to maximize rate of responding. Findings from basic research suggest second-order chained schedules generate slower response rates and longer pre-ratio pauses when compared with second-order variable or tandem schedules. Applied research supports the use of token economies in increasing appropriate behavior and reducing problem behavior, but has not provided an analogue to basic research. The purpose of this study is to compare responding under second-order token and tandem schedules using clinically common production and exchange values with a participant diagnosed with autism. Rate of responding on a free operant task (i.e., target touching) and an applied task (i.e., sorting clothing) were compared; for both tasks tokens were presented contingently following responses during the token condition, but were absent during the tandem condition. Results from one participant indicate longer pre-ratio pauses and duration per component under the second-order token schedule than the tandem schedule. These findings replicate basic research findings and suggest the use of tokens is contraindicated.
Julie M. Stine
Stine, Julie M., "Comparison of second-order token and tandem schedules using clinically common production and exchange values" (2011). Applied Behavioral Analysis Master's Theses. Paper 84. http://hdl.handle.net/2047/d20001211
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